Phased Array Element Count to Approximate Directivity
n dipoles
1 dBd = 2.15 dBi
Ground plane adds 3 dBi
D = dBd (LP)
D = dBi (LP)
D = dBi (LP w/ Ground plane)
D = dBi (CP array + CP signal)
D = dBic (CP array + CP signal)
LP = Linear polarization
CP = Cicular polarization

CP arrays require an even number of orthogonal dipole elements
(minimum two elements)